Monday, May 25, 2020

Edgar Allen Poe and Humor Essay - 1915 Words

Edgar Allen Poe and Humor Edgar Allen Poe is most often recognized, and certainly most famous, for his poem â€Å"The Raven† as well as other decidedly dark and often gothic poems and stories, stories such as â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher,† â€Å"The Telltale Heart† â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado.† He also wrote many others mostly involving rather macabre, dark topics and characters as well as heavy themes such as insanity, madness, incest, murder and revenge. While this reputation is certainly well earned there is another side of Poe that is not quite so obvious. Poe was also a master of humor, especially in the use of parody and satire. One might ask how is it that a writer with such an inclination towards the darker side of humanity can†¦show more content†¦In the story a woman, Signora Psyche Zenobia, whose real name may very well be Suky Snobbs, is getting advice from the great Mr. Blackwood on how to write an article of the same stature as those in the Black wood magazine, an esteemed literary magazine of the time. Among Mr. Blackwood’s advice is to find a situation or â€Å"such a scrape as no one ever got into before† to get herself in and then proceed to write about the â€Å"sensations† she is experiencing (Poe 341). In the process of writing these sensations she is to use a certain few literary techniques in order to ensure her writing is of Blackwood quality. Some of the situations he uses as past examples are a man who is buried alive and writes about it as well as the man who was baked in an oven and also wrote about it. Poe is essentially the degrading stature of the magazine by comparing the articles it prints to these idiotic stories and his rather pompous and pretentious character who is totally serious as he gives her this advice, much as is the real life magazine is with regards to how ostentatious its writers are. The techniques that Mr. Blackwood gives to Zenobia are actual strategies and common techniques used by many writers in different styles of writing. The problem, and hence the humor, is that Mr. Blackwood tells her about them all at the same time and she interprets this as meaning she should useShow MoreRelatedThe Single Emotional Poeffect995 Words   |  4 PagesWhen reviewing Nathaniel Hawthornes Tales, Edgar Allen Poe pronounced that the short story, if skillfully written, should deliver a single preconceived effect- an effect upon which incidents be fashioned to accommodate that effect. Edgar Allen Poe was indeed a skillful writer. His short story, The Fall of the House of Usher is a flawless example of a story in which all elements contribute to the delivery of a single emotional effect. Poe accomplishes this by achieving a perfect tone, developingRead MoreHumorous Humor Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Dark Hearted 1675 Words   |  7 PagesPoe: Lighthearted Humor in a Darkened Hear t Edgar Allan Poe, the dark hearted author! When speaking of Poe, readers would most likely associate him as a dark and dreary author. His uses of vivid, shadowy imagery and themes of death and despair lurk within the minds of his audiences. Poe, however, subtly injects his works with humor that may not easily be spotted by the human eye. Why exactly would Poe inject humor into his horror stories, since they aren’t comedies? To begin, the use of humor inRead MoreEdgar Allen Poes The Cask of Amontillado Essay983 Words   |  4 PagesEdgar Allen Poes The Cask of Amontillado Edgar Allen Poes brings us a twisted tale of vengeance and horror in The Cask of Amontillado. Poes character, Montresor, acts as our guide and narrator through this story. He grabs a hold of the reader as he tells the story from his own apathetic and deceptive mind to gain vengeance from the weak and dismal Fortunato. Montresors mentality is disturbing as he uses his clever, humor, ironic symbolism, and darkness to accomplish this. At the beginningRead MorePoe vs. Shakespeare Essay1556 Words   |  7 PagesThe Comparison of Edgar Allan Poe and William Shakespeare Brandi Greene University Composition and Communication I/COM155 May 9th, 2013 University of Phoenix The Comparison of Edgar Allan Poe and William Shakespeare Many have been inspired by the likes of Edgar Allen Poe and Shakespeare in literature but, there are similarities and differences between the two. Each author could lure their audiences by the characteristics of their writing. Their places in society alsoRead More Dichotomy of Colors in Poes The Masque (Mask) of the Red Death1063 Words   |  5 PagesDichotomy of Colors in The Masque of Red Death  Ã‚   In The Masque of Red Death, Poe uses aural, visual, and kinetic images to create the effect of fear in a joyful masque. Poe starts off with a description of the Red Death. He gives gory detail of how it seals ones fate with Blood. He tells of pain, horror and bleeding. Moreover, the pestilence kills quickly and alienates the sick. This is Poes image of death. He only bothers to tell its symptoms. He doesnt go into the fear present inRead MoreThemes in the Writing of Edgar Allan Poe that Mirror his Personal Life1379 Words   |  6 Pages His father an actor abandoned the family when he was one years old and his mother an actress died of tuberculosis when 2 yrs old. His foster parents cared for him as a young child and their last names were Allan. This is where his full name Edgar Allan Poe comes from. When he was in college he wrote all of his walls and came of gloomy and depressed to some classmates. He removed his self from the college because of gambling debts. He marries his very young cousin Virginia Clemm when she was 13yrsRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe1167 Words   |  5 PagesEdgar Allen Poe’s short story â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† is essentially the story of a man, the narrator, Montresor who seeks revenge against a man named Fortunato who insulted him. Montresor meets Fortunato at a carnival, lures him into the tunnels, or catacombs under his home, and buries Fortunato alive. The two images that show the mood and tone of Poe’s story are captured in a simple, black and white comic strip style. The genre of the story translates differently and oddly into the images evenRead MoreLiterary Criticism In The Cask Of Amontillado1087 Words   |  5 PagesFortunato’s success. Prior to reading â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† the book gave a brief life account and background about Edgar Allen Poe. The biography states he was adopted by a wealthy businessman as a result of being an orphan at a very young age. What life circumstances could have fueled Edgar Allen Poe’s creativity and fascination with morbid subject materials? I don’t think Poe would have possessed his sophisticated literary talent had he not had shared in life’s hardships and learned throughRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado Analysis935 Words   |  4 PagesRiley Akers Mr. Hooper English II 531-09 September 2, 2017 The Cask of Amontillado In the short story â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† by Edgar Allen Poe, Montressor uses his rival, Fortunato’s, Hubris to plot his revenge for the wrongs Fortunato has done against Montreseor’s family. In the beginning of the story, Montressor explains why he must get his revenge on Fortunato and also explains how Fortunato believes he is a skilled judge of fine wines. His plan to kill Fortunato is to lure him into his wineRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allen Poe872 Words   |  4 Pages In the story â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written in 1846, by Edgar Allen Poe he speaks about the plot to kill the main character by the name of Fortunato. The murder of Fortunato is committed by a friend named Montresor. Poe never truly reveals how Fortunato s death will occur but he uses, suspense, and Irony to keep the reader entertained. The story is narrated by Montresor, a man who seeks revenge. His plot of revenge is towards a man by the name of Fortunato who is a drunk, but a very distinguished

Friday, May 15, 2020

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Essay - 1452 Words

The term Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a general name given to a few disorders that all fall under the category of inflamed intestines (they become red and swollen.) This is usually due to a reaction the body causes against its own intestinal tissue. The two most common types of Inflammatory Bowel Disease are Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD). Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract; however, it more commonly affects the small intestine or colon. Inflammatory Bowel Disease is a chronic disease, which means that it lasts a long time and can occur frequently. There are some cases where a person will only suffer from one occurrence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and then be in remission from†¦show more content†¦People who suffer from Crohn’s disease may also suffer the same risks of colon cancer, but typically only if the entire colon is affected. There are also rare extra-intestinal cases of Inflammatory Bowe l Disease that occur in organs other that the intestinal tract. These symptoms may include arthritis, liver and kidney disorders, bone loss, and more. In cases of children suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease, it may also delay puberty. This is due to the body not absorbing all of the nutrients from their food. They may also suffer from fever, fatigue, and weight loss. One symptom that is not definite, but may help decide what form of IBD is present, is where the pain in the abdomen is located. Typically Ulcerative Colitis patients experience pain in the lower left section of the abdomen, while Crohn’s Disease patients tend to suffer from pain in the lower right section of the abdomen. â€Å"With Ulcerative Colitis, bleeding from the rectum during bowel movements is very common, and bleeding is much less common in patients with Crohn’s Disease.† (Tresca, 2009) While Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease share similar symptoms, they are treated different medically. â€Å"There are cases where the diagnosis of one form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease over the other is very difficult.Show MoreRelatedInflammatory Bowel Disease1385 Words   |  6 PagesInflammatory Bowel Disease 1. Describe the pathopysiology of the disease you have chosen – What is the spectrum of disease/pathology the disease? Is the disease characterized by inflammation, etc? Is it an infectious and/or chronic disease? If so what is the agent, its reservoir, mode of transmission etc. Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic illness characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract (Wolf, CDC, Mayo clinic, health direct, NHS choices). Patients suffering from inflammatoryRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease ( Ibd )1434 Words   |  6 Pages Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be defined as the chronic condition (it is persistent/ long-standing disease) resulting from inappropriate mucosal immune activation. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can start at any age. However, it is frequently seen among teenagers And also among young adults in their early twenties, both genders can be affected by this disease. There are two conditions that traditionally comprise inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Ulcerative colitis and crohns disease. ComparisonRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease and Industrialization Essay1682 Words   |  7 Pages Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing gastrointestinal condition currently affecting a total of about 28 million people worldwide (cite). Although it is not considered a fatal condition, painful and disabling symptoms can have a profound detrimental effect on patients’ quality of life. Current understandings behind the etiology of IBD emphasize genetic predispositions to gastrointestinal immune system imbalances. However, pathophysiological understandings of IBD seem to beRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease and Ulcerative Colitis 861 Words   |  3 PagesInflammatory Bowel Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a variety of conditions in which a chronic immune response and inflammation occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases are triggered by an abnormal response by the body’s immune system. In a normal functioning immune system, the cells protect the body from infection. However, in those who are suffering from IBD, the immune system mistakes bacteria, food, and other materialsRead MoreThe Importance Of Nutrition On Inflammatory Bowel Disease1607 Words   |  7 Pages. Lucendo, A. J., De Rezende, L. C. Importance of nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. World Jour of GastroenteroL. 2009. WJG, 15(17), 2081–2088.’ This peer review article highlights the fundamental role that nutrition therapy plays in the clinical management of all patients with CD. The review concentrates specially in correcting macro and micronutrient deficiencies in frequently malnourished patients, focusing on reversing the physiopathological consequencesRead MoreCrohn s Disease : An Inflammatory Bowel Disease Essay1474 Words   |  6 PagesCrohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that is defined by inflammation of the digestive system. It can affect any part of the GI tract, including the mouth and anus (Abbvie Inc, 2016)). Crohn’s disease does not have a cure and there is no exact cause for the occurring disease. â€Å"Since the exact cause of Crohn’s disease is unknown, it has been linked to a combination of environmental factors, immune function and bacterial factors, as well as a patient’s genetic susceptibility to developingRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Inflammatory Bowel Di seases1805 Words   |  8 Pagespeople diagnosed with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), lactose intolerance and/or a combination of the two. Theories suggest that the delayed onset of lactose intolerance, in patients who already have IBD’s, may arise as secondary lactose intolerance but only as a byproduct of the IBD. This begs the question of if the prevalence of an IBD predisposes that same person to lactose intolerance and if so, what are the drivers that allow this to happen? Inflammatory bowel diseases are categorized intoRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease ( Ibd )1316 Words   |  6 Pagescauses and diseases related to these symptoms. It was awkward and unpleasant to deal with the symptoms for him. He felt weak and started to lose weight. Eventually, Mr. A was diagnosed with crohn’s disease (CD) a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 2012. IBD is a collective group of disorders that are chronic and incurable and characterised by inflammation in the intestinal tract. (Chang Johnson, 2014, p.446). Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are autoimmune diseases, where theRead MoreThe Inflammatory Bowel Disorder Known As Crohn s Disease ( Cd )1291 Words   |  6 Pagesfundamental purpose of this paper is to apprise to the reader pivotal information on the inflammatory bowel disorder known as Crohn’s Disease (CD). It is a rare disease that is usually not wanted to be discussed by its sufferers , due to its sensitive nature of being a digestive problem. Luckily, as this paper will show, it is now an issue slowly, but surely, being explored more openly. A short introduction to the chronic disease will be divulged, pathophysiology and etiology will be discussed to prepare theRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease/ Crohns Disease Essay1899 Words   |  8 PagesInflammatory Bowel Disease/ Crohns Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders that cause inflammation or ulceration in the small and large intestines. Most often IBD is classified as ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease but may be referred to as colitis, enteritis, ileitis, and proctitis. Ulcerative colitis causes ulceration and inflammation of the inner lining of a couple of really bad places, while Crohns disease is an inflammation that extends into the deeper

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Data Collection From State Bank Of Pakistan Financial...

Methodology Data: This study is based on the data collection from state bank of Pakistan financial analysis of non-financial companies listed on Karachi stock exchange (2006-2011).The publication provides the data of 411 companies in around 10 sectors from year 2006 to 2011. In this research we are not including the financial firms because their structure is totally different from non-financial firms and financial firms are services firms. Methodology In this study we are using the panel data regression analysis and it considers both cross section and time series features. It helps to create the clear picture of the relationship between different variables because panel data considers multiple variables for different time periods. Panel data have many advantages over time series and cross sectional data sets. Provides large numbers of observations; It increases the level of freedom and decreases level of co linearity among the independent variables. Why Panel Data? The main purpose of panel data econometric model is to utilise, which comprises the data in cross section with time series data to deal with the variables which are being analysed in this study. In this study we worked on the cross sectional units over the 6 years’ time span and we made the observations on each variable during this time. According to Terra (2002), the panel data analysis have advantage in relating to the economic problems when dynamic effects and cross section variatrions are related. InShow MoreRelatedFirm Aggressiveness And Respective Performance Empirical Study Under Pakistan Essay1501 Words   |  7 Pagesat CFCBE, CECOS University, Peshawar Pakistan Abstract Finance manager aggressiveness regarding designing capital structure (especially working capital) which yields optimum return is a debatable matter from last 50 years. The phenomenon is still vague especially in Pakistan because of the information asymmetry and failure of perfect market hypothesis. The study investigates capital structure of all non financial listed firms on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) for the periodRead MoreImpact of Merger and Acquisitions on Banks Financial Performance5743 Words   |  23 PagesIMPACT OF MERGER AND ACQUISITION ON BANKS FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BY HIRA KHAN STUDENT OF MBA-I IN JINNAH UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION THIS RESEARCH PAPER SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF JINNAH UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN AND TO MRS, AMBREEN FAIZAN IN PARTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MBA FOR THE COURSE OF ADVACE RESEARCH METHOD 15TH JUNE, 2012 AC(C)K(K)N(N)O(O)W(W)L(L)E(E)D(D)G(G)E(E)M(M)E(E)N(N)T(T) I thank AllahRead MoreStandard Chartered Bank Ltd Financial Statement Analysis5815 Words   |  24 PagesStandard Chartered Bank Ltd Financial Statement Analysis In respect of: Prof. Muhammad Usman Submitted By: Abdul Qadir (021) Amber sarfrz (051) M.Usman (067) Samar Rasheed (069) Sanan Hayat (071) Financial Management Institute of Business Administration University of The Punjab,Lahore Pakistan DEDICATION We would like to dedicate this project to our mentor and respected teacher Prof. Muhammad Usman Whose love and support give us the strength to work†¦Read MoreA Internship Report on Habib Bank Limited2584 Words   |  11 PagesHABIB BANK LIMITED Session 2007-09 Submitted To: Submitted By: SAJID VIRK Roll No.238 MBA DEPARTMAENT OF MANAGEMENTS The Islamia University of Bahawalpur PREFACE Internship is an essential part of MBE programmed and this provides us the practical knowledge of our theoretical concepts about the business. Internship is a way to get experience practically in some organization. This is the way to understand the working environment of some good organization. Read MoreInternship Report on Ztbl20418 Words   |  82 PagesZarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. Chapter 1 Introduction to Report CHAPTER 1 â€Å"INTRODUCTION TO REPORT† 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY The Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited is the premier financial institution geared towards the development of agriculture sector by providing financial products and services to their customers. It is a common practice at universities during the completion of the masters and bachelors program to attain practical experience in different fields. Students are required to undergoRead MorePakistan s Social Life Through Corporate Social Responsibility Essay3931 Words   |  16 Pagesassessment in Pakistan’s social life have been main focus and concern throughout the whole research study. The main problem statement is: â€Å"What is the role played by companies in Pakistan’s Social Life through CSR†? 1.3 Background of the Study In Pakistan, many companies are focusing on improving and increasing their corporate social activities in order to provide benefits and welfare to the human beings and to fully fulfill the responsibilities while living in the society at large. The corporateRead MoreCommunication Risks in Accounting Information System in the Commercial Banks of Pakistan2996 Words   |  12 Pagescomputer unit and internal control unit and its impact on the efficiency of Accounting Information System in the Commercial Banks of Pakistan INTRODUCTION: The modern world introduces new and new technology day by day, more and more innovation and invention in computer related technology. It have more effects in computerize accounting information system in banking sector of Pakistan by providing unique and quality services to their customers by using cutting-edge technology. It will help to diminishRead MoreImpacts of Profitability and Financial Leverage on Firm’s Capital Structure9947 Words   |  40 PagesImpacts of Profitability and Financial Leverage on Firm’s Capital Structure By [Your Name] [Instructor’s Name] [Institution’s Name] [Date] Declaration While conducting the proposed research work, I, being a hard-working, innovative and conscientious researcher, come up with the factual severity of consequences allied with an act of plagiarising content from others’ work. Moreover, I do comprehend the rules and regulations my university encompasses against submitting a plagiarised documentRead MoreEvaluating Performance Of Commercial Banks10074 Words   |  41 PagesEVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN PAKISTAN: â€Å"AN APPLICATION OF CAMEL MODEL† Adnan Zaheer MB-F11-200025 Abdul Karim MB-F11-200023 Abdul Basit Ishaq MB-F11-200017 Sohail Ahmed MB-F11-200028 MBA-20A (2011-2014) ARMY PUBLIC COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES (APCOMS) KHADIM HUSSAIN ROAD RAWALPINDI AFFILIATED WITH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, TAXILA Acknowledgement Essential and foremost, all praises for the Almighty Allah, the generousRead MoreInternship Report on Citi Bank11361 Words   |  46 PagesINTERNSHIP REPORT CITI BANK LIMITED [pic] SUBMITTED TO: Head of internship committee. Department Of Business Administration Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Sub Campus Sahiwal SUBMITTED BY: Muhammad Umair Waqas BBA(Hons.) 6th semester Roll no: BBS-06 Department Of Business Administration

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Christopher Columbus1 Essay Example For Students

Christopher Columbus1 Essay Christopher Columbus was born in the port city of Genoa, Italy in 1451. His father was a wool weaver named Domenico Columbo. As a boy, Christopher had no schooling. He and his younger brother Bartholomew helped their father by carding raw wool. Christopher grew up to be a tall, red-haired, quiet and deeply religious man. He worked for his father until he was 22. He went out with the sardine fishing fleets, as other Genoese boys did and he sailed along the coast to Corsica on business for his father. Genoese traders had their own schooners as did Christopher Columbus father. He made at least one trip to the North African coast. On long trips such as these, Christopher learned the elements of seamanship. In 1476, Columbus sailed as a common seaman aboard a Genoese merchant ship that was headed for Lisbon, England and Flanders. That he was out exploring for his mother country, that is the story we all hear in school and it also shows a side that we dont hear. The one that shows Columbus as this great guy and the other story which I am writing on Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress by Howard Zinn, shows the opposite side. The side that is more two sided. The story by Daniel J. Boorstin has the type of elementary school ring to it. By it being the story that you hear most about Columbus. If you have heard this story then you know that it is very easy to believe and you have most likely fallen for it. People make it sound like he struggled his way across the ocean, in a ship that was falling apart. But Zinn says,His voyage was something like a Caribbean cruise(400). You may have questioned the story or maybe not, but for some people like Howard Zinn it just didnt sound right. His side of the story is that Columbus was going out just for himself, to make himself money and to make himself famous. He tell about how Columbus was friend with the Indians and then when they would not give his men what he had asked them for he was now there enemy. He told the Indian people that they had to collect so much gold every month and if they did not do so their hands would be cut off. Columbus had promised people back in his homeland that he would bring slaves back with him. Where do you think these slaves came from? They were the Indians. He would load them up by the thousands, but by the time that they would get to their destination most of them would be dead. Both stories has things to support themselves. It is rather interesting the story that Zinn brings up because most people never hear anything like that. Bibliography: .

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Consumer Buying Behaviour in Detergent Essay Example

Consumer Buying Behaviour in Detergent Essay A Study on performance analysis of the tirunelveli District co- operative milk producers union limited PROJECT REPORT Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of commerce to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu. Researcher P. LAKSHMANAN Register No: 1181317 Under the Guidence of Dr. P. BALASUBRAMANIAN M. Com. ,M. Phil. ,Dip. in. Law. ,Ph. D. ,M. B. A. , 2012 – 2013 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE THE M. D. T. HINDU COLLEGE (ACCREDITED WITH B GRADE BY NAAC) Tirunelveli – 10. Department of Commerce The M. D. T. Hindu College, Tirunelveli – 11. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled â€Å"A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT CO – OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS UNION LIMITED† is a bonafide work of P. Lakshmanan under the guidance of Thiru. Dr. P. BALASUBRAMANIAN M. Com. ,M. Phil. ,Dip. in Law. ,Ph. D. ,M. B. A. , and his original submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master Degree of commerce. Thiru. T. S. Chelliah M. Com. ,M. Phil. ,Head of the DepartmentThe M. D. T. Hindu CollegeTirunelveli – 10. | Dr. P. Balasubramanian M. Com. ,M. Phil. ,Dip. in. law Ph. D. ,M. B. A. Factory guideThe M. D. T. Hindu CollegeTirunelveli – 10. | Internal ExaminerExternal Examiner P. LAKSHMANAN Master of commerce Reg. No: 1181317 Department of commerce The M. D. T. Hindu College, Tirunelveli – 627 010. DECLARATION I hereby declare that the dissertation for the Degree of Master of Commerce entitled â€Å"A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT CO – OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCER’S UNION LIMITED† is my original research work. We will write a custom essay sample on Consumer Buying Behaviour in Detergent specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Consumer Buying Behaviour in Detergent specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Consumer Buying Behaviour in Detergent specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It does not from part of any previous dissertations, thesis and reports Submitted to this university or any other universities. Date:Signature of the Candidate Place: (P. Lakshmanan) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank, God for giving me the wisdom to complete my project successfully. My special thanks all due to my parents to and relatives for giving me the opportunity to study my post Graduation. I express sincere and heartfelt thanks to our principal Dr. P. CHINNATHAMBI. M. A. (Eco) M. A. (GT) M. Phil. , Ph. D. Our esteemed Institution for permitting me do this project me do this project work. I am also grateful to the Head of the Department Thiru. T. S. CHELLIAH M. Com. , M. Phil. , for this encouragement and valuable suggestions in the completion of my Project work. I am also grateful Thiru. Dr. BALASUBRAMANIAN M. Com. , M. Phil. , Dip. in Law. , Ph. D. , M. B. A. , continues guidance and kind support in the Successful his conations of my Project. I express my hearful thanks to all my lectu rers for their kind support for completing my project work. P. LAKSHMANAN) CONTENTS CHAPTER NO| TITLE| | I. | INTRODUCTION| | II| LITERATURE WITH ITS IMPORTANT| | III| PROFILE OF THE TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT CO-OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS UNION LTD| | IV| ANALAYSIS amp; INTERPRETATION OF DATA| | V| FINDING amp; SUGGESTION| | VI| BIBLIOGRAPHY| | CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 INTRODUCTION OF MILK Indian economy is agriculturally predominant. About 40 percent of the contribution to national income comes from agriculture. 50 crore of population out of 100 crore are earning their livelihood from agriculture. People do not get employment in agriculture throughout the year due to its seasonal nature and hence a large section of the rural population remains poor still. Dairy industry provides good employment to the rural population. As an auxiliary occupation, it is next only to agriculture and weaving. Buffalo is the major source of milk in India whereas the cow is almost the major source of milk at the world level India accounts for almost one sixth of the cattle and half of the buffalo population of the world. The national Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was set up under the aegis of the inistry of agriculture and irrigation, Government of India in September 1965 under the society’s registration act 1860. Its Board of Directors including chairman is nominated by the president of India. The secretary of NDDB is the chief execution of the organization. Who is supported by professionals to carry out the Boards activities It promotes projects of general public utility as well as intern ational liaison with other national Diary Board and international agencies to facilitate the exchange of information for conducting research in the filed of dairying and animal husbandry. The package of services which the NDDB officers help in the creation of viable co-operative farmer’s organization ith facilities for procuring, processing and marketing of milk and milk products. The NDDB’s approach towards the modernization of dairying has been well accepted under India’s various five year plan and the world bank-aided projects in Indi and abroad. The Indian dairy industry is thus on the threshold of a new era of quantum jump in milk production, which would totally transform the dairy sector scenario to the rural masses in terms of higher income, improved amenities and better living. The establishments of a co-operative structure, which ensures a guaranteed market for the producer acts as an incentive for higher milk production and eliminates intermediaries in the milk trade being well organized, the milk producers, are able to burgain for a higher price line with increasing cost of production. But, the state governments in their anxiety to protect consumer interests act as a check against steep increases in price. Operation flood phase – I was originally designed to be implemented over a period of five year and launched on July 1, 1970, but it was extended till march 31, 1981 over 10 states, operation flood phase – II was launched on October 2, 1979 while operation flood Phase – I was still underway and concluded on march 31, 1985. Operation flood phase – II covered 22 states / union territories. Operation flood phase- III was started on April 1, 1985 to consolidate the extensive milk procurement, processing and marketing intra -structure crated under operation flood – I and operation flood – II in 23 states / union Territories and finally completed in march 31, 1996. The operation flood – I project had and initial outlay of Rs. 95. 4 crore which was later increased to Rs. 116. 4 crore. The operation flood – II programmed had an outlay of Rs. 458. 5 crore, whereas it was RS. 1303. 1 crore during operation flood – III programme. By the end of phase – III, 72. 5 thousand village level dairy co-operative societies (DCS’s) have been established in 170 milk sheds covering 267 districts in 23 states / union Territories of India from where milk is collected twice a day. Nearly 92. 6 lakh former members supply about 10. 99 million kg milk per day which is processed by 370 liquid milk processing plants and product factories under the organized sector in India. The average liquid milk marketed through milk co- operative by the end of operation flood phase – I was 27. lakh litre per day which increased to the level of 100. 2 lakh litre per day by the end of operation flood phase – III. The growth in annual milk procurement, average liquid milk marketed and liquid milk converted into milk products under operations flood programme extended the organized marketing of milk to cover 500 towns which include the development of procurement, processing and transportation facilities in the milk sheds . The basic infra – structure of milk processing capacity had increased substantially in the country over the various operation flood phases. Similarly, trends were also observed for technical inputs like a number of artificial insemination (A1) centers, and cattle feed capacity. 1. 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: The need for co- operative dairying is justified on the grounds of protection to private milk producers from undue exploitation and unhealthy competition, members of milk producing society should be given facilities for selling their milk to their best possible advantages. Normally, the members are settled their dues after making unauthorized deduction. Adequate finance and credit facilities to the members for purchasing milk animals and their maintenance should be provided due to encouragement should be given their member to increase their production and to improve their quality. It is impossible for the individual members has storage facility and provision for standardization like grading, sampling amp; packing. Another hardship felt by the member with transporting of milk to the urban area. The above factors warranted to have centralized agency that to on co-operative basis. The Tirunelveli District co-operative milk producer’s union limited is a district level organization which provides necessary help to the individual members of co-operative society. The development of milk producer’s co-operative societies helps its members to improve their standard of living and help to market their milk is the urban area. The union is giving necessary facility to milk producer’s societies. The service of this union place and important role in bringing about the white revolution in Tirunelveli. As a resident of Tirunelveli, the researcher is interested on these organizations. Hence the study in the Economic Appraisal of the co- operative milk producers union is chose. 1. 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are objectives of this study: 1. To evaluate the performance of the union in terms of procurement of milk and sale of milk amp; milk products. 2. To analyze the profitability in terms of gross profit and gross profit ratio. 3. To examine major variables which contribute the profit or incur losses. 1. 4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study is limited to analyse the performance of the Tirunelveli district co-operative milk producer’s union Ltd only. The performance of the union was evaluated on the basis of available data No analysis is made and performance of milk producer’s societies and their members. This study is confined to the period of five years from 2007-2008 to 2011 2012. 1. 5 METHODOLOGY: To analyse the performance, both primary and secondary data have been used. The secondary data includes annual report, special report. Information regarding the volume of procurement and volume amp; value of different milk products etc. the profit and profitability were analysed on the basis of audited trading and profit amp; loss account of the co-operative union. Necessary statistical tools to evaluate the performance were used. Simple average to accounting ratios was used. Suitable diagrams and graphs were used after proper tabulation. 1. 6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: The researches felt that the time as the real constraint. The officials are reluctant to give full information, regarding procurement sales etc. the findings of this project would reflect this limitation. CHAPTER II LITERATURE WITH ITS IMPORTANT This chapter attempts a review of earlier studies which is an economic issues relavant to the research problem undertaken. It also present discussions of concepts provided which are use in the present study. 1. D. S. THAKAR had studied on â€Å"Impact of dairy development† through milk co-operatives in Kaira district of Gujarat has expressed that the milk co-operatives provide many facilities for the improvement of the economic conditions of village. In addition to the provision of technological inputs for milk production the co-operatives and also provide funds for the development of other facilities like road, water supply, school and other organization electrification and telephone connections in the villages. This we are been know that this, developments stands by the way of village development. 2. B. S. Babishkar in his study â€Å"Dairy Co-operatives and rural development in Gujarat have revealed that the dairy co-operative have brought many benefits to the milk producers in the villages like guaranteed market for milk at fixed price, supply of cattle, provision or regular veterinary services in the villages etc. â€Å"By so we are been able to know that veterinary services are properly brought in the villages for its development. . According to D. Nagambraham, Economic benefits accrued account of co-oprative dairying are clearly known through higher yield per milk animals, higher levels of milk production and dairy co-operatives at prices the village level, people started remunerative price received by milk producers with the advent of dairy co-operatives at prices the village level, people started demanding better than accepting whatever that are been offered villages by such again in momentary with this dairying work. . According to V. K. Agarwal Co-operative marketing not only strengthen the producer’s position as a seller and asures him of a regular trade, out let for getting better prices but also integrates marketing and production operations, reduces waste by preventing duplication of agencies and provide facilities for the improvement in the quality of dairy products. By so proper products are realable within the times if the people. 5. V. Kulandai Swamy in his book â€Å"Co-operative dairying in India† has dealt with economic, social and peripheral benefits as follows: a) The dairy co-operatives have the capacity to generate substantial employment opportunities in rural areas. b) The dairy co-operatives also build up substantial corporate assets which are the assets of the entire community. c) The successful working of dairy co-operative and their modernization influence the technical modernization of rural areas in a variety of ways. . R. L. Shiyani (1996) analyzed the topic of an economic inquiry into the impact of dairy co-operatives on milk production in the dry land area of saurashtra which would be useful not only to the co-operative section but also to the public and private sectors for, improving their efficiency. Four dairy co-operatives here are selected at random from their Junagath District co0operative milk producer were selected. From the villages covered by these co-operative. The total milk buffaloes and cows awarded by the members were 139 and 64 respectively, which the corresponding figures for non-members were 117 and 78. To examiner the impact of dairy co-operatives, the relevant data were collected and analyzed separately for there seasons such as rainy season (July to October), winter season (November to February) and summer seasons (March to June). The survey covered the agricultural year 1992 – 93. By so it is clearly known that even dry areas could be properly development this diaring. 7. K. SreeDevi (1996) analyzed the role and impact of milk co-operatives on production of milk. An investigation was carried out in Tanali division of Guntur district in Andhara Pradesh which was purposively selected. A sample of 60 members and 60 non-members were selected from four village milk co-operative societies, by using random sampling technique. The survey method was adopted for collecting the data. Conventional analysis and cob – douglas type of production function were used ruler analysis we can found that Guntur, which is a dry district can be well developed than this. . N. M. Jnamke, et al 17 (1989), examined the procurement and sale of milk by dairy co-operative societies and factor affecting their profit. The results revealed that the per month milk collection and sale by the medium size societies were twice as those of small. Size societies, while the large – size societies had four times more than the terms over than medium size societies. The results of the co-efficient of variation analysis showed that there more regular milk collection in large – size societies as compared to medium and small – size societies. The multiple regression analysis indicated that even a increase in milk commission, cattle feed, trading, profit and operating expenses tended to increase the profit. 9. S. S. Chahal 24 (1996), examined the role of co-operatives in marketing of milk in Punjab. The study was based on the data collected from 130 members of milk producer’s co-operative societies (MPCS) of co-operative milk plant, 90 milk sellers who sold milk to centers attached to private milk: vendors, sweet shops and local consumers. It was found that 73 percent of the milk was purchased by agencies other than the milk co-operative societies in rural Punjab. An Examination he was able to provide that even co-operatives can earn good conduct the this. 10. B. S. Tomer 26 (1996), examined the extent of marketing and processing of milk through co-operatives in Harayana state and studies the marketing costs, the margins through private trade and co-operatives. The study revealed that the state produced about 110 lakh littered of milk: per day and the marketable surplus of milk was estimated as 28 lakh litters of milk: a day in 1994 – 95. The procurement of milk through co-operative societies for its marketing and processing was only Meagre_of the total milk production. A reviews of the studies mentioned above reveal that the main focus is on the over all development of the village offering push to productivity, marketing and infrastructural facilities in the villages. The present study is only an examination and analysis of the Tirunelveli district co-operative milk producer’s union ltd. CHAPTER – III PROFILE OF THE TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT CO-OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCER’S UNION LTD 3. 1. INTRODUCTION: A study of the performance evaluation of the Tirunelveli District co-operative milk producer’s union ltd embraces its formation, size and quantum of milk procured and sold and its performance for the part 5 years from 2007 – 2008 to 2011 – 2012. 3. 2. MILK CO-OPERATIVES IN INDIA: The dairy co-operatives, being an integral part of the operation flood programme, have played a major role in the production and marketing of milk. For a long period, dairy farming in India was characterized by the dominance of small marginal formers, scattered production inadequate marketing channels, lack of modem inputs and facilities for product transformation. It was an auxiliary source of income to the formers. The marketing of milk was represented by unorganized private traders who turned milk – trading into an exploitative activity. The economic importance of dairy forming was felt only after success of kaira district co- operative milk producer’s union, Anand (populary known as AMYL) in 1949. The number of dairy societies rises from 2007 in 1970 to 61,000 by the end of 1990 with 174 milk union and 8. 23 million litre of dairy milk sales. At present about 80 percent of the milk handle by the organized sector is through co-operatives. 3. 3. DAIRY CO – OPERATIVES IN TAMILNADU: In Tamil Nadu milk co-operatives were organized by the state co-operatives department in 1920. India’s fist co-operative dairy with processing and marketing facilities was established at Ayyanavaram in Madras city in 1927. This was followed by the establishment of milk co-operative at Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy, Tajnore, Ooty, Cuddlore and other parts of Tamil Nadu. In 1958 the Dairy Development co-operatives was established. It embarked upon large scale dairy development activities with the aid from New Zealand and under Colombo plan, in 1963 a cattle clony at Madhavaram and also a dairy co operative factory to process fifty thousand liters of milk per day was established. Later another dairy co – operative society to handle fifty thousand liters of milk per day was established at Madurai in 1967, with the assistance from United Nations children’s fund (UNICEF). Further a large number of chilling centers were also established and organized marketing of milk was under taken at madras and Madurai cities. In 1972 the Tamil Nadu Dairy Development Co-operation was setup and it took over all the commercial activities of the state dairy development. In 1978, as per the policy decision taken by the government of TamilNadu, a three their co-operative structure was evolved consequently an apex federation known as Tamil Nadu co-operative milk federation was fonned on 1st Feb 1981. I took over the activities of the Tamil Nadu fairy development corporation. In later years the number of co-operative milk producer’s societies at the village level, co – operative milk producer’s federation at the state level were organized. At present in Tamil Nadu about six. leen district co-operative milk producer’s union is one of the sixteen selected for this study. 3. 4 PROFILE OF THE CASE UNIT A detailed profile of Tirunelveli district co-operative milk producer’s union ltd is given in the following headings. 3. 4. 1 REGISTRATION: The Tirunelveli district co-operative milk producer’s union was registered on 30th August 1982 and it started functioning from 01. 01. 1983 with the assets and liabilities transferred as such from the Tamil Nadu Co-operative milk producer’s federation under Madurai unit. 3. 4. 2 LOCATION The Tirunelveli district co – operative milk producer’s union ltd established in Reddiarpatti road, it covers 17, 19 acre i. e. (71, 978 square meter). 3. 4. 5. MEMBERSHIP OF THE UNION: The membership of the union consists of registered milk producer’s societies in the area of operation of the union, Primary milk supply societies functioning in the area of operation of the union can also be admitted as members subject to the condition that they agree to covert themselves as producers. Similarity persons dealing with whom the union has financial and business dealings may also be admitted by the board as associate members of the union. Each associate member shall not be required to hold the shared but shall have to pay an associate fee of ten rupees. The table given below shows the membership during the study period. TABLE 3. 1 MEMBERSHIP Year| Members (In Lakhs)| 2007-2008| 1. 16| 2008-2009| 1. 16| 2009-2010| 1. 16| 2010-2011| 1. 08| 2011-2012| 1. 06| CHART : 3. 1. 1 3. 4. 6 NUMBER OF PRIMARY SOCIETIES The information regarding the number of primary societies is given in the following. TABLE 3. 2 CO- OPERATIVE SOCIETIES Year| No. of co-operatives societives| 2007-2008| 1. 16| 2008-2009| 1. 16| 2009-2010| 1. 16| 2010-2011| 1. 08| 011-2012| 1. 06| At present the union has three hundred and eighty two primary co-operative societies. CHART : 3. 2. 1 CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES 3. 4. 7. CAPITAL At present capital consists of the share contributed by the producer’s Societies and the government of Tamil Nadu. Societies contributed as share capital Rs. 7,61,709 and the Tamil Nadu government contributed Rs. 3. 16,76,890 towards share capital. 3. 4. 8 EMPLOYEES At present in these union 269 employees are working at various levels in various sections such as production amp; input, administration, dairying, marketing, finance amp; accounts. 3. . 9 PRODUCTS: The products includes milk, butter, ghee, flavoured milk, curd butter milk, milk peda, cream, ice cream and skimmed milk powder and also purchased the product from other union and sell it. They are mysorepa, badam mix, flavoured (mavin), S. M. (tetra). 3. 4. 10. TYPES OF MILK: The following table shows the different of milk made by the union. TABLE 3. 4. 1 TYPES OF MILKS S. NO. | PARTICULARS | FAT| S. N. F| 1. | Special Toned Milk| 3. 5%| 8. 5%| 2. | Standardized Milk| 4. 5%| 8. 5%| 3. | Homogenized pasteurized milk (purchased from Salem union)| 6%| 9%| 3. 4. 11 PRICE LIST OF THE PRODUCT The following tables shows the price list of the different product. TABLE 3. 4. 2 PRICE LIST S. No. | Particulars| Retail Price| M. R. P| 1. | Special Toned Milk| 26. 25| 26. 75| 2. | Standardised Milk| 26. 60| 27. 00| 3. | Homogenised pasteurized Milk| | 29. 00| 4. | Butter 500gm| | 85. 00| 5. | Ghee 200 gm| 39. 70| 43. 00| 6. | Ghee 500 gm| 87. 51| 95. 00| 7. | Ghee 1 kg pet jar| 180. 51| 195. 00| 8. | Ghee 15kg pet jar| | 3120. 00| 9. | Milk peda 50 gm| 7. 77| 8. 00| 10. | Milk peda 100 gm| 15. 55| 16. 00| 11. | Flavoured milk 200 ml| 16. 90| 18. 00| 12. | C. Butter 500 gm| 83. 72| 85. 00| 13. | Mysorepa 250ml| 43. 02| 45. 00| 4. | Badam Mix 200ml| 37. 65| 40. 00| 15. | F. M (Tetra) 100ml| 30. 18| 32. 00| 16. | F. M (T) 200ml| 16. 69| 18. 00| 17. | F. M (Mavin) 200ml| 14. 83| 16. 00| 3. 4. 12 CAPACITY The union has a capacity of one lakh litres (litres per day). Milk procures from the respective chilling center through 20 milk collection routes with the help of 10 milk procurement teams. The following table show the average milk collection during the year 2012. TABLE 3. 5 MILK PROCUREMENT Dairy C/c| CapacityLPD| No. of routes| No. of Societies| Average milk collection LPD| Tirunelveli Dairy| 50000| 7| 135| 25000| Sankarankovil c/c| 30000| 4| 90| 20000| Valliyoor c/c| 20000| 4| 70| 15000| Kovilpatti c/c| 10000| 3| 42| 3000| Sankarankovil c/c| 10000| 2| 45| 7000| Total| 120000| 20| 382| 70000| 3. 4. 13 AREA OF OPERATION The Tirunelveli district c-operative milk producers union ltd covers both Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts. These districts have 10067 Revenue villages of which 773 revenue villages are covered under this union. The union covers 18 taluks and 31 blocks. The milk to be sold through 11 mil distributes routes. 3. 4. 14 PROCUREMENT AND SELLING PRICE The procurement and selling price are fixed by the government on the basis of fat and SNF (Solid Not Fat) Rate = Fat x SNF x Quantity TABLE NO. 3. 6 PROCUREMENT COST AND SELLING PRICE S. No. | Particulars| Fat| SNF| Procurement cost (Rs per litre)| Selling Price (Rs. per litre)| 1| Special toned Milk| 3. 5%| 8. 5%| 23. 00| 26. 25| 2| Standardized Milk| 4. 5%| 8. 5%| 23. 40| 26. 60| 3| Homogenized Milk| 6. 0%| 9. 0%| 23. 67| 29. 00| 3. 4. 15 DISTRIBUTION The Tirunelveli District co-operative milk producer’s union it has sold its products in the following ways. TABLE: 3. 7 DISTRIBUTION S. No. | Particulars| Tirunelveli| Tuticorin| Total| 1| Direct Sales a) Milk Booths b) Milk Parlors| 89| 12| 911| 2| Agents| 38| 35| 73| | Association| 10| 6| 16| 4| Co-Operative Society| 4| 2| 6| 5| Institution| 20| 5| 25| 6| Other union| 1| -| 1| | Total| 90| 51| 141| 3. 4. 16 CATTLE POPULATION At present the union has a total animal population of 51, 524 out of which 41,224 white cattle’s (cows) and 10,300 are as buffaloes. The following table shows the cattle population during this study pe riod. TABLE: 3. 8 CATTLE POPULATION Year| Cows| Buffalos| Total| 2007-2008| 42,806| 10,900| 53,706| 2008-2009| 43,200| 11,150| 54,350| 2009-2010| 42,640| 10,760| 53,400| 2010-2011| 42,051| 10,533| 52,584| 2011-2012| 41,066| 10,215| 51,281| CHART : 3. 8. 1 MEMBERSHIP CATTLE POPULATION CHAPTER –IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4. 1 INTRODUCTION The success of any concern depends on its generation of profits. The Tirunelveli district co-operative milk producer’s union limited is not a profit motive organization. This union is catering to the needs of small milk producers and supplying hygienic milk to the consumers. Though this union is a non – profit motive organization, if it is able to generate profit, it improves its capital investment. In this chapter the performance of the union is evaluated in terms of sales volume, purchases, gross profit, net profit etc. 4. 2 SALES: One of the factors which improve the net profit is the sales volume. Greater the sales volume greater the profit. The union incurs the expenses till it ales. From the sales effect alone the union can recover the cost. Any amount released over and above the cost it earns profit. A concern is assumed to be sound when it is able to sell, the goods collected and manufactured. The Sales volume of the union is shown in the following table. TABLE 4. 1 TOTAL SALES Year| Amount| Trend Percentage| 2007-2008| 26,87,50,285| 100| 2008-2009| 29,54,11,229| 109. 92| 2009-2010| 29,20,74,012| 108. 18| 2010-2011| 26,92,32,714| 100. 18| 011-2012| 23,72,47,473| 88. 28| The above tables shows that the total sales value stood at Rs. 26. 87 crores in 2007 – 2008 in the next year there was an increase of 2. 67 crores which accounted to 9. 9% increased. The lowest volume of sale during the study period was 2011 – 2012. A lnixed trends in the sales value had been noticed during the study period. The sale value included the sales of different products. The product includes milk, flavoured milk, butter, ghee, milk powder and other items like milk peda, cream, curd and butter milk etc, the itemized sales of different products are analyzed in the following paragraph. . 3 MILK: The union sells primarily the milk procured from the small milk producers and other unions. The selling price per litre prevails at Rs. 26 per litre. In the Table given below the volume of sales in litres was given. TABLE NO. 4. 2 SALES VOLUME OF MILK Year| Ltr (in crors)| 2007-2008| 1. 59| 2008-2009| 1. 34| 2009-2010| 1. 16| 2010-2011| 1. 01| 2011-2012| 1. 00| The above table showed that a consistent decline in the volume of sales of milk was noticed. The maximum volume of sales of milk stood at 1. 59 crores litres in 2007 – 2008 the decline of 0. 25 crores of litres was noted in each of the following two years. The same volume was maintained in the last year of the study period. From the official of the union, the researcher came to understand that the growth of production of milk by non member who undertake their own vending was the reason for consistent decline in the sales volume milk From this, it was understood that private milk vending entrepreneurs were the main competitors for the union. The average milk sales in litre per day ranged from 43572 to 27321 litres. The table given below shows the sales value of milk during the study period. CHART : 4. 2. 1 SALES VOLUME OF MILK TABLE NO. 4. 3 SALES VALUE OF MILK Year| Amount (Rs. In Coroes)| Share in % on total sales| 2007-2008| 20. 67| 76. 93| 2008-2009| 17. 4| 58. 98| 2009-2010| 15. 1| 51. 71| 2010-2011| 13. 1| 48. 70| 2011-2012| 13. 00| 54. 85| The consistent decline in the sales value of milk during the study period as coincided with consistent decline in the sales volume. The share of milk sales in total sales was accounted to 77% in 2007 – 2008. A sudden fall by 18% in the share of milk was noted in 2008 – 2009. In the third year the share of milk sales declined to 51. 71% further decline by 3% in the total share was noticed in 2009 – 2010. The slight improvement in the share of milk sales with the total sales by 6% was noticed in the last year of the study period. Chart : 4. 3. 1 SALES VALUE OF MILK 4. 4 PEAK MONTH OF SALE OF MILK A researcher wanted to know the pea month of sales of milk. Therefore the average daily sales of the basis of 5 year were computed and they are presented in the following table. TABLE NO. 4. 4 AVERAGE DAILY SALES Month| Quantity (in Ltrs)| April| 34,384| May| 34,574| June| 35,254| July| 34,993| August| 34,979| September| 35,061| October| 32,840| November| 32,408| December| 31,945| January| 31,391| February| 31,744| March| 30,845| From the above table it is understood that the peak. Month of milk consumption are June and September. June Covers Vaikasi and Aani in Tamil minths and August covers Aavani. These months are noted for marriages and other functions. The other peak months are April, May, July and August. From this, it inferred that there is correlation between auspicious months and milk consumption. 4. 5 BUTTER: Next to the main product of milk, sale of Butter and Ghee has commercial importance. While processing the milk, butter is extracted. It also procures butter form other unions. This union has a considerable sale of butter. The contains information regarding the sales value of butter. TABLE NO. 4. 5 SALE VALUE OF BUTTER Year| Amount (Rs. In crores)| Share in % on total Sales| 2007 – 2008| 3. 65| 13. 58| 2008-2009| 6. 7| 22. 71| 2009-2010| 7. 6| 26. 03| 2010-2011| 7. 8| 28. 99| 2011-2012| 6. 0| 25. 32| From the above table it is understood that a consistent increase in the trend of sale of butter had been register during the study period except for the year 2011 – 2012. It is noticed that the sales value of butter roughly doubled in 2008 – 2009 has compared to 2007 – 2008. In the next 2 years the average sales value stood at 7. 7 crores. In the last a sudden decline in the sale value by 1. 8 crores was noted. Nowadays the consumers had greater demand for the union’s butter and ghee. The share of sales value of butter in the total sale value range between 13. 58% and 28. 99% A perfect correlation in the sales value of butter and its share in the total value were noticed. 4. 6 FLAVOURED MILK: On the basis of commercial importance flaboured milk ranks third. The unsold procured milk is converted into flavoured milk powder and milk products. Nowadays flavoured milk from this union is becoming popular among the people. The information

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Rice in Philippine Myths and Legends Essay

Rice in Philippine Myths and Legends Essay Philippine Myths, Legends, Epics History Essay Philippine Myths, Legends, Epics History Essay Legends and myths are not simply basic stories; they contain lessons and ethics that went on from era to era. These stories might likewise incorporate significant recorded information about the way of life of certain individuals or the whole race. The Philippine fables are the wellsprings of the numerous issues of local life. Initially told and retold by the forefathers of long prior, these stories have streamed down to the present through the lips of storytellers and have turned into a key a portion of the nation’s social legacy (Fullmer, 2013). Rice in Philippine Myths and Legends Philippine mythology and old stories incorporate a gathering of stories and superstitions about enchanted animals and substances. Some Filipinos, despite the fact of being intensely westernized, still have confidence in such issues. Philippine mythology and superstitions vary depending on the region. This is because the nation has numerous islands and they are possessed by diverse ethnic gatherings. Then again, certain likenesses exist among these gatherings, for example, the root of rice (Acabado, 2009). Origin of Rice There was a period, numerous years earlier, when rice was not known at all. At that time, the progenitors lived on such products as vegetables, wild animals and birds, which they hunted in the mountains or the timberlands. Working the dirt was still obscure. Likewise, poultry and pig was not yet a piece of their method for living. Since individuals relied upon the nourishment the nature gave, and not what they themselves developed or raised, their stay in one spot was always temporary. At the point when there was nothing more to hunt or gather in a certain place, they would go to another location where there was a lot of sustenance. Therefore, they flowed starting with one place then onto the next (Juanillo 2011). In the beginning of the day, the men set off to the mountains or woods to hunt, while the women and little kids were busy fishing and gathering foods grown from the ground. Following full time work, every single wild creature that had been killed in the chase, and all foods grown from the ground that had been assembled would be divided equally among all the families, which maintained the balance (Juanillo 2011). One day, a group of hunters went out to chase a deer. In their yearning to have a decent prey, the men walked all over until they came to the Cordillera Mountains. Having a long journey, and feeling dead drained, they chose to take a rest under a major tree. It was nearing twelve and every one of them were hungry (Patriarca, 2015). While resting in the shade of the tree, they saw, not far from them, a group of men and women who did not look the same as common people. The hunters understood that they were divine beings and goddesses who lived in that partof the mountain. At the same time the men stood up and gave the gods due admiration. The divine beings were happy of this signal. Consequently, they invited the hunters to have a dinner with them (Juanillo 2011). The men helped to cook the dinner. They butchered the deer and a wild pig, and afterward set them over the hot coals. In a brief time, a worker of the divine beings got a few bamboos and set them over the fire. The bamboos contained little white pieces formed like dabs. Before long, the cooked bits were set in saucer-molded banana leaves (Juanillo 2011). The table weighed down with simmered meat, cooked vegetables, and new natural products. Different bamboos were gotten and these contained what looked like immaculate water (Patriarca, 2015). The hunters soon discovered that the precious substance was not water, yet rather, the wine of the bathalas (Fullmer, 2013). To begin with, the men were hesitant to join the gala as they saw the little white parts. We dont eat worms, the boss hunter said. The bathalas grinned. These white dot-molded portions are not worms, answered one of the divine beings. They are cooked rice. They originated from a special sort of plant, which we ourselves develop. Come and eat with us. After the god had talked, the seekers did not resist any longer. They ate with the divine beings. They were satisfied and glad, because they had been bolstered as well as in light of the vitality: they felt in the wake of eating cooked rice. Their powerless bodies became solid once more (Fullmer, 2013). After the blowout, the hunters expressed gratitude to the divine beings. Before leaving, each hunter got a sack of palay from gods. This is palay, clarified one more of the divine beings. Pound the palay, winnow and clean it exceptionally well. Wash the rice with water and place the washed rice between the pieces of the bamboo with enough water to be consumed by the rice. At that point, put the bamboo over the flame until it is cooked. The god delayed for some time. At that point he kept on talking. The wiped out will get to be solid and every one of you will be fulfilled in the wake of eating. Safeguard a portion of the palay for your seedbed. The divine beings exhorted the hunters to begin planting amid the blustery season. Amid the dry season, they could collect the palay. The gods then advised the men to present the palay in their town and show the general population how to till the dirt. You will discover advancement, and this will prevent you from meandering from spot to spot(F ullmer, 2013). The hunters expressed gratitude to the divine beings again. At that point, they set off for their town. They followed the guidance of gods. They taught their own kin how to till the dirt and plant rice. They also taught their kindred villagers how to cook rice. Obviously, they presented the eating of cooked rice to the general population. After numerous years, the act of eating rice and the craft of its planting have to be far reaching. Numerous different barangays soon embraced the practice and skill. From that time forth, rice has turned into an essential sustenance of our kin. Likewise, alongside the working of the dirt, our kin have figured out how to raise creatures and to build changeless abodes (Fullmer, 2013). Rice Farming and Rituals In the long time past days, starvation was prominent in the Philistines. The frantic individuals entreated their goddess to spare them. Moved by compassion, the goddess slid to the earth. The area was dried off with dry spell, with just a couple of strong weeds on the ground. The goddess uncovered her chest and poured milk into every desolate ear of the weeds. When her milk ran out and she saw that there were still vacant ears, she requested that the sky gave her more drain. On the other hand, when she squeezed her chest once more, just blood turned out. When she was done, she then twisted low over the plants and begged them to prosper and encourage her once more (Haban, 2009). Among the World Heritage destinations in the Philippines, the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras have such an effective vicinity, to the point that makes them a standout amongst the most extraordinary spots in the nation. Lying high in the Cordillera Mountain, their setting cannot be duplicated anywhere in the swamp tropical scene or even anywhere on the planet. Weeks passed and the weeds developed and turned out to be full of grain. At the point when the general population collected the stalks and beat them open, a few grains were as white as the goddess milk while some were as red as her blood. The general population cooked the grains and discovered them nourishing. Cheering, for finally they have got sustenance, the people offered gratitude to the goddess as they re-planted and collected this weed, which is what is presently known as rice (Russel, 1920). Birthplace myths propose this was essentially found through experience to manage nourishment sources, particularly in light of catastrophes, for example, dry spell and plagues and cholera. The general rule and procedure of terracing was exhibited in custom myths, however the strategies were created through time and by the involvement of the perfect mediation of Ifugao progenitors. In their progenitor-incited dreams a few aptitudes, have been created by the Ifugaos for their rice terracing custom. A few ceremonies have been produced by the Ifugaos that deify their precursors in their rice terracing convention. It is trusted that the custom myths presented in rice ceremonies frame its establishment (Acabado, 2009). Researchers believe, inclines have been terraced and planted with rice as far back as 2,000 years. Mountains terraced into paddies that still make due in shifting conditions of protections are spread over area range (7 percent of the aggregate area regions of the Philippine archipelago) that is in the northern Luzon regions of Kalinga-Apayao, Abra, Benguet and Ifugao. The implausible site is found at heights differing from 700 to 1,500 meters above ocean level, where porches are cut into mountain inclines with forms that ascent steeply (Madigan, 1964). Presence in the Cordillera unites man with nature, and the unparalleled perspective shows how man has formed the scene to permit him develop rice. The sheer beauty of the patios imparts uniqueness and quality. Other than wind and stirring leaves, there is additionally the consistent sound of water streaming downhill on the waterways that flood the patios. There is nobleness in society and environment communicated by the ageless peacefulness of the porches. Most Filipinos view the porches as their most noteworthy national image (Russel, 1920). The starting points and age of the Ifugao rice patios in the Philippine Cordillera keep on inciting interest and creative ability in scholastic and prominent civil arguments. For Southeast Asian researchers, dating these patios is basic for comprehension of Philippine ancient times and Southeast Asian designs even more largely. Past the insightful group, the terraced Ifugao scene has caught the worlds creative ability as an imperative social scene. To date on the other hand, lacking work has been embraced to decide either when the porches were initially built or the period included in building this layered scene (Acabado, 2009). The Ifugao are one of a few minority ethno semantic gatherings in the northern Philippines, and one of the best recorded by ethno noteworthy and anthropological researchers. At the turn of the twentieth century, two unmistakable figures in Philippine humanities started an escalated examination of the Ifugao. Researchers proposed a 2000-3000 year old cause for the Ifugao rice patios, utilizing perceptions and subjective theories on to what extent it would have taken the Ifugao to alter the tough geology of the region. This long history has turned into a sort of got insight that discovers its way into course books and national histories (Acabado, 2009). The slick positions of level topped lake fields have likewise been called a stairway to the sky – a similitude that summons the legendary starting points of the local rice assortments developed in the range. As indicated by conventional stories, these extraordinary sorts of rice were given to the Ifugao individuals by the divine forces of Kabunyan, the Skyworld. In return, the Ifugao individuals demonstrated the Skygods the mystery of cooking with flame. By and by, the sweet-smelling rice from the Skyworld accompanied conditions appended. The Ifugao needed to guarantee that they would obediently perform a few customs that would shield the rice plants from vermin and sicknesses and guarantee plentiful harvests (Russel, 1920). At the other side of the range, a few researchers have proposed a later starting point of the Ifugao rice porches. Utilizing confirmation from lexical data and ethno memorable records, these studies recommend that the terraced scenes of the Ifugao are the deciding consequence of populace venture into the Cordillera good countries in light of Spanish colonization. Swamp mountain contacts are known even before the Spanish landing. These contacts may have encouraged the development of swamp people groups to the good countries when the Spanish set up bases in their districts (Russel, 1920). The Ifugao Rice Terraces, which take after the characteristic forms of the mountains, just improve the districts rough normal excellence. They additionally exemplify a consonant, practical relationship in the middle of people and their surroundings. These fields, and the learning to cultivate and support them, have been gone down from era to era for a considerable length of time. The structures unique developers utilized stone and mud dividers to painstakingly cut and build porches that could hold overwhelmed lake fields for the development of rice. They also settled a framework to water these plots by collecting water from peak woods. These inconceivable designing accomplishments were finished by hand as seemed to be (and is) the cultivating itself. The rice porches have long been a key to the survival of the Ifugao people, yet they additionally involved a focal significance inside of their way of life. Whole groups participate in repetitive, occasional frameworks of planting and co ntrol (Kokemuller, 2015). Today, the Ifugao rehearse a mix of wet-rice terraced cultivating and swiddening. This agrarian framework is critical in the customary association of their public. The first class (kadangyan) own the wet-terraced rice fields, while the least social class (nawatwat) owned the dry rice fields. The burden of the pilgrim period corrupted the relationship between the kadangyan and the nawatwat. Beforehand, the kadangyan had colossal social impact in Ifugao society: they settled on the Programs for patio building, upkeep, and ceremonies. With the osmosis of the Ifugao by more extensive swamp Philippine society, this social element has subsequently changed. It likewise has significant ramifications in the support and preservation of these structures (Acabado, 2009). Determining the vestige of the whole Cordillera terraced field custom requires archeological work to figure out if the customary long history or the revisionist short history even more precisely speaks to the word related history of this area. Such work requires many years of examination in distinctive territories over the bumpy district, starting with regions inside Ifugao area (Russel, 1920). Late archeological and ethno-authentic examination gives occasion to feel qualms about this conviction. To tell the truth, the patios seem, by all accounts, to be around 450 years of age (PDF). This implies they date from a period when Spanish colonizers of the Philippines were first infiltrating into the inside of northern Luzon. This timing recommends that the well-known patios may be a result of the pilgrim experience: as the Ifugaos attempted to separate themselves from the Spanish danger, they withdrew from low-lying locales into mountain shelters. The number of inhabitants in the mountain zones developed, and interest for sustenance expanded, so the Ifugaos opened up new rural patios on ever more elevated valley slants (Kokemuller, 2015). The customary arrangement of the rustic individuals of Misamis Oriental and the northern portion of Bukidnon Province reaches out to all parts of life. The family relationship complex, the obligation reimbursement complex, and the soul world complex tie the customs in continuing manner into the way of life of the territory. The main custom among the ordinarily rehearsed nourishment creation ceremonies is the harvest custom. This comprises the essentials of a soul feast at which suitable vocal supplications to God and to the spirits arepronounced. Since the commitment of offering the supper is accepted to be grave, most ranch families deliberately satisfy it every year. Answers for the peaceful issues raised by the presence and routine of the customs by Catholics are not liable to be found in forbidding their execution by Catholics, yet in further investigation of the nature and elements of the ceremonies (Madigan, 1964). A portion of the Ibaloys rice-planting service is the custom describing a birthplace myth about how Kabuniyan of the skyworld got rice from Maseken of the underworld. Kabuniyan tossed a lance at a deer that hopped into dark water; however he hit the top of Masekens home. When he pulled up the lance, there was a stalk of rice connected to it. A low voice from the house under the water blamed him for having stolen Masekens palay or unhusked rice. In the wake of listening to Kabuniyans clarification for the transgression, Maseken taught him to plant the palay in the field and to summon his name at each harvest time (Russel, 1920). Created around the time the Spanish control of the Philippines started in 1565, the Tinikling dance follows its sources to the island of Leyte. The wet atmosphere of the island made it exceptionally suitable for developing products, for example, rice. Agriculturalists and field hands working in the rice paddies had numerous chances to watch the conduct of the tikling fowls that lived in the range as they hunt down sustenance along the field edge. Impersonating the jumping developments at home turned out to be a diverting hobby (Kokemuller, 2015).

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Organisations Learning and Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Organisations Learning and Development - Essay Example To help employees acquire these capabilities and to hone their existing skills, many organisations are investing heavily on learning and developmental activities, which will help in achieving changing organisational objectives. Learning and developmental activities are also employed to motivate and retain skilled and experienced employees, which will not only enhance organisational capabilities but also save costs. The present discussion is based on organisational learning and development at UK-based B&Q, a leader in do-it-yourself retail home improvement sector. B&Q is the biggest home improvement retailer in the United Kingdom and have maximum customers than any other retailer in this sector. B&Q offers more than 40,000 do-it-yourself (DIY) products, which certainly requires highly talented and skilled staff that prepares such diverse products. B&Q employs more than 25000 full time employees in their retail stores in the UK. Started in 1969 by Richard Block and David Quayle, this s tore has about 321 stores in the UK and more than 50 stores in Ireland and other countries. Apart from numerous other awards and recognitions, B&Q has been winning the Gallup Great Workplace award in 2010 for four consecutive years for highest employee engagement and productivity in the world. This exemplary performance of B&Q is credited to its employees’ contribution, which is supported and promoted by workplace policies and practices followed at B&Q. B&Q’s main office is located at Southampton, and is referred to as Store Support Office, from where their HR function provides specific learning and developmental opportunities and support to its employees in different locations. Their HR team works closely with organisation development team to improve performance through identifying, shaping and supporting initiatives meant for employee learning and development (About B&Q, n.d). Argyris (1999) emphasizes that contemporary management views effective organisational strat egy as that which promotes continual development of new understandings, models, and practices; this management aspect is referred to as organisational learning. From this perspective, organisational learning is one of the crucial tasks in strategic management. Organisations that encourage creativity, employee empowerment and involvement require employees to be continually learning and developing new skills and competencies that can help in their performance and contribution; this is more crucial for organisations that produce innovative products and services. Moreover, for employee empowerment to be effective, employees must have the knowledge and skills to make logical and correct business decisions. Although employees come with some learning through education and prior experience, learning at organisation should continue for many reasons. Workplace learning helps in maintaining high motivation and enthusiasm of the employees. This is demonstrated in statement made by Glendinning, the Business Services Manager in Finance department of B&Q: ‘It is a big part of my job to always be thinking ahead, to be able to analyse my current performance, to be a good team manager and of course to hit my sales targets. B&Q are a great support in getting